First Semester Exam Study Guide

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Semester Exam Study Guide in Word Format

FIRST SEMESTER SOCIAL STUDIES EXAM STUDY GUIDE

Test Dates: A Day (Harriel’s Homeroom): December 14 & 20, B Day (Barton’s Homeroom): December 13 & 17

  1. A CHARTER is a document granting the recipient the right to settle a colony.
  2. A JOINT-STOCK COMPANY is a company in which investors buy stock in return for a share of its future profits.
  3. A BURGESS is an elected representative to an assembly
  4. The VIRGINIA STOCK COMPANY was founded as a joint-stock company to create colonies in America for profit.
  5. The HOUSE OF BURGESSES was located in the colony of Virginia and was the first legislative body elected by the people in North America.
  6. The first colony was founded by the Virginia Stock Company and was called JAMESTOWN in honor of King James I of England and was founded to MAKE A PROFIT (money) and its leader was JOHN SMITH.
  7. The SOUTHERN COLONIES were mainly founded to make money and for people in search of obtaining wealth and included the modern-day states of Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Caroline, and Virginia. They had GREAT FARM LAND, HOT SUMMERS, COLD WINTERS, AND EACH STATE HAD LARGE AMOUNTS OF SLAVES.  The main cash crop was TOBACCO.  The Southern Colonies had MANY CONFLICTS WITH THE NATIVE AMERICANS.
  8. The NEW ENGLAND COLONIES were founded by people looking for religious freedom and religious tolerance. They were mainly PURITANS. The Summers were WARM, they had COLD WINTERS. Their main economy was FISHING, SHIPBUILDING, AND LUMBER.  The New England colonies included the modern-day states of CONNECTICUT, RHODE ISLAND, MASSACHUSETTS (which also included the state of Maine), and NEW HAMPSHIRE.  Most New England states DID NOT BELIEVE IN SLAVERY. The new England colonies had many conflicts with the Native Americans.
  9. The MIDDLE COLONIES had MILD SUMMERS AND MILD WINTERS. They included the modern-day states of PENNSYLVANIA, DELAWARE, NEW JERSEY, AND NEW YORK. They had some farming, some fishing, but LOTS OF MANUFACTURING. SLAVERY WAS ALLOWED in the Middle Colonies, but IT WAS NOT WIDESPREAD (not as many slaves as in the Southern colonies.  The Middle colonies worked AND TRADED with the NATIVE AMERICANS and did NOT HAVE TOO MANY CONFLICTS.
  10. The PILGRIMS founded the colony of PLYMOUTH. Before they exited the boats, they wrote the MAYFLOWER COMPACT to use as their governing laws.
  11. The PURITANS founded the MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY. They founded it so they could have religious freedom and its leader was JOHN WINTHROP.
  12. CONNECTICUT AND RHODE ISLAND were founded by Puritan ministers who thought JOHN WINTHROP was way too strict.
  13. NEW YORK was first founded by the DUTCH and called NEW AMSTERDAM, but the English took it over as their own and renamed it NEW YORK.
  14. The QUAKERS FOUNDED PENNSYLVANIA, AND WILLIAM PENN WAS THEIR LEADER. William Penn founded the city of PHILADELPHIA as its capital.
  15. NATHANIEL BACON led a REBELLION (BACON’S REBELLION) IN VIRGINIA. He did this because the government forbid people from moving West into Native American land, and he wanted the right to move West.
  16. GEORGIA WAS FOUNDED BY JOHN OGLETHORPE. It was founded to give DEBTORS in England a place to go instead of being put in prison.
  17. Because TOBACCO was so hard to grow, requiring many people to help grow it, SLAVERY grew tremendously in the SOUTHERN COLONIES.
  18. The QUAKERS in PENNSYLVANIA took an open stance AGAINST SLAVERY.
  19. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning rod, bifocal glasses, and the Franklin stove. His occupation was a publisher.  He published Poor Richard’s Alamack, his own autobiography, and several political cartoons that pushed for the union of the thirteen colonies.  The most famous cartoon was the “Join, or Die” cartoon.  It was a snake that was cut into pieces representing the 13 colonies and showing if they did not join together, they would never break away from Britain’s tyranny and be an independent country.  He authored the “Albany Plan of Union” as a document to get the colonies to join together, but at the time the colonies did not want to give up their own independence and form a union.  He was an ambassador to France, and he was responsible for the French helping out the colonies during the War for Independence from England.
  20. Know where the colonies of New York, Virginia, Maryland, and Georgia are on a map.
  21. An alliance is a partnership with a person or a group
  22. If a country is neutral, it takes no one’s side in an argument or war.
  23. A representative government is a system where people elect a small number of people to make laws and conduct government business on their behalf.
  24. A militia is a military force make up of normal citizens.
  25. Exports are goods shipped OUT of a country to another country.
  26. Imports are goods shipped INTO a country from another country.
  27. Mercantilism is an economic theory where the goal is building a state’s wealth and power by increasing exports and accumulating precious metals (i.e. gold, silver) in return.
  28. Immigration is the permanent movement of people from one country into another.
  29. An epidemic is an illness that affects large numbers of people (Small Pox then, AIDS now).
  30. An apprentice is a young person who is learning a trade (job) from a skilled craftsperson.
  31. Civic Virtue are the democratic ideas, practices, and values that are at the heart of the people in a free society.
  32. Revenue is money collected from taxes.
  33. A writ of assistance is a court document allowing customs officers to enter any location to search for smuggles goods.
  34. A resolution is an official expression of opinion by a group.
  35. An effigy is a mocking figure representing an unpopular public figure.
  36. A boycott is to refuse to buy items from a person, company, or country to show disapproval to force acceptance by the person, company, or country of one’s terms.
  37. Repeal means to cancel an act or law.
  38. Rebellion is an open defiance of authority.
  39. Propaganda is ideas or information intentionally spread to hurt or help a cause.
  40. A committee of correspondence is an organization that spread political ideas and information through the colonies.
  41. The French and Indian Way was actually fought with the French and Indians on one side and the British and the colonists on the other side.
  42. The French and Indian War was fought by the British to help protect the colonists from French advances onto colonial land and the Indians fighting back for their own land that had been taken over by the British colonists.
  43. During the French and Indian War, almost all colonists were loyal to England and fought alongside them.
  44. George Washington first learned how to be a leader during the French and Indian War.
  45. The British paid for ALL costs of the French and Indian War in order to protect the colonists.
  46. In Europe the French and the British were also fighting against each other in a war called the Seven Years War.
  47. The French and the British had been fighting each other on and off in Europe for about 1000 years and fought each other from the very beginning in the New World.
  48. At the end of the French and Indian War, the British government was basically broke from paying for the war. Britain wanted the colonists to pay them back for the war by creating several new taxes on them.  The colonists thought since Britain was their government and governments had the duty to protect their citizens, they colonies should not have to pay Britain back for the protection at all.  This DIRECTLY led to the colonists wanting independence from Britain and in short time the Revolutionary War.  Without the French and Indian War the United States may NEVER have achieved independence and become a country.  We could STILL be citizens of Great Britain TODAY!!!
  49. WAR IS VERY, VERY EXPENSIVE!!!
  50. The Navigation Acts forced the colonists to sell ALL their goods to ONLY Britain and to BUY goods made ONLY in Britain.
  51. At first the colonists like the Navigation Acts as they made sure there was a market to sell their goods, but they soon came to resent them. They wanted to be able to sell their goods in other countries and to be able to buy goods from other countries.
  52. Massachusetts passed the first laws requiring mandatory education so all children would be able to read and study the Bible.
  53. Many of the ideas in American government came directly from ideas in The Enlightenment in Europe.
  54. John Locke came up with the idea of all men deserving the right to life, liberty, and property. Thomas Jefferson was a fan of Locke, and he used the ideas of all men deserving life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the beginning of the Declaration of Independence.
  55. The idea of having a separation of powers in the government came directly from a French philosopher who lived during The Enlightenment. The idea divided government into an executive branch (now our president), a legislative branch (now our Congress), and a judicial branch (now our Supreme Court).
  56. John Peter Zenger was a newspaper publisher who printed the Royal Governor of New York was a very corrupt man. Even though this was a true statement, Zenger was arrested and tried in court for libel.  He was eventually found NOT Guilty.  This trial happened long before the U.S. was a country and directed impacted the U.S. Constitution.  It was the basis of the First Amendment to the Constitution which states the press has the freedom to print any and all statements about the government or government officials as long as they are TRUE.  This is called Freedom of the Press.  Freedom of Speech also came directly from the Zenger trial.
  57. The First Great Awakening was a time when people thought they should get back to being VERY religious again. Churches in the colonies began demanding the power to create laws and take part in governmental affairs.  It directly led to the governmental idea of the separation of church and state which is supposed to keep church officials frim mandating the laws passed in the U.S. and from influencing the judicial system.
  58. During colonial times, basically ALL the European people living in North America lived within 10 miles from the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.